Timeline for Mesopotamia

Timeline for Ancient Mesopotamia

 

 

    Keep in mind that even scholars who have devoted whole lifetimes to identifying the chronology of Mesopotamia openly admit that the current timeline is only their best estimate based on what has been archaeologically confirmed. I am working off of the current academic model, and this a only a dumbed down version of the far more advanced,  painstakingly curated works of career chronologists. As far as I am concerned, this is my attempt at generalizing thousands of years of Mesopotamian history… Mesopotamia for the laymen, or the casual scholar who perhaps does not have the time to devote to learning this for their self. I have done this in the name of macrohistorical holism; a decent understanding of Mesopotamian history is necessary for a decent understanding of religious evolution in the age of Aries. 

 

AGES OF CANCER+GEMINI+TAURUS in Mesopotamia

13,050-7550 BCE: Early Natufian Domestication 

Semi-sedentary Natufian settlements begin appearing in The Levant. Domestication of edible plants and dogs begins during this time, and the first semi-sedentary cultures emerge as a result. 

 

8800-6500 BCE: Pre-Pottery Neolithic

The furtherance of Natufian culture, domestication of plants and animals, and the development of more permanent settlements in The Levant and “fertile crescent’ regions. The first human likeness were created in this time, as archaeologists have found crude statues depicting human forms. This is religiously significant, as human likenesses (outside of reflections) indicate an advanced level of ego development and self awareness in relation to any other species. (You might notice a trend, wherein the accuracy and ornateness of human likenesses increase, so does the collective ego, especially within the ruling classes).

 

6400-4500 BCE: Mid-Neolithic/Pottery Neolithic

A period of the Neolithic age defined by the advent of baked pottery, and the abundance of archaeological evidence supporting this, in the form of pottery fragments. During this time, farming, irrigation and general domestication practices were honed, and settlements began transitioning from semi-sedentary to fully permanent.

 

6000-3800 BCE: The Ubaid Period

This prehistoric period of Mesopotamian history is characterized by vast improvements in farming and herding, as well as the emergence of three cultural settlements: The Halaf Culture (6100-5100 BCE) in the north, the Sammaran Culture (5500-4800 BCE) in the middle, and the Ubaid Culture in the south (6500-3800 BCE). Evidence suggests these cultures developed and participated in class structure, inter-regional trade, and cultural diaspora. It is this during this period that we see the shift from the Neolithic age into the Bronze age. 

 

3800-3100 BCE: The Uruk Period

It is during this period that humans truly undertake innovative domestication, including the advent of the canal, the plow, and the wheel. Civilizations with rudimentary centralized governments began popping up all over place (Uruk being the most notable), as humans mastered agricultural technologies, as well as metallurgy. This age is also the setting for the shift to prehistory to history, as the first writings appear in the form of cuneiform tablets. Of course nature was still the ultimate decider of a settlements success, but these technologies made domestication and record keeping so much easier than ever before. There is also evidence of Uruk cultural expansion, and trade with lands as far as Egypt, Indus Valley, and Annatolia. 

AGE OF ARIES in Mesopotamia

2900-2350 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period

This period is characterized by the development of city-state monarchies led by kings who claimed their ‘divine right’ to these positions of power. These rulers would ‘protect’ their populations through appeasing the Gods and conducting diplomacy with other regional powers, as well as providing opportunities for their peoples on the ‘Palace-Temple’ economy model. The two main cultures in Mesopotamia at this time are Sumer in the south and Akkad in the north, and they both evolved in a similar fashion, first with the advent of monarchies and applicable diplomatic responsibilities, then with the development of the ‘Palace-Temple’ economy system to sustain it. (For the sake of ease and holism, the Early Assyrian Period (2500-2025 BCE) begins during the Early Dynastic Period, but it is referred to as “Akkad” during this time). 

 

2350-2150 BCE: The Akkadian Period/Akkadian Empire

This is the first instance of an empire-like occurrence in Mesopotamia. Sargon of Akkad defeated Lugal-Zage-si of Sumeria and took his entire territory, effectively combining Akkad and Sumeria, placing the capital city in Agade. This period is hallmarked by bi-lingualism (as Sumerians spoke Sumer and Akkadians spine Akkadian, although Akkadian would become the primary language by the end of this period), cultural symbiosis within Mesopotamia, and even more foreign trade. Naram-Sin (2254-2218 BCE), grandson of Sargon of Akkad, was the first Mesopotamian ruler (documented, at least), to deify himself. This is believed to have angered the God Enlil, who cursed the empire’s capital city of Agade with famine, plague, and economic collapse, allowing for the empire’s fall to the nomadic Gutians, who controlled the region for the next 100 years.

 

2260-2110 BCE: Second Lagash Dynasty

A period of Sumerian independence from Akkadian and Gutian rule. The rulers of this time referred to themselves as “ensi” or governor, out of humility. There was golden age under Ensi Gudea (2144-2124 BCE).

2112-2004 BCE: Ur III/Neo-Sumerian Empire

Founded by Ur-Nammu (2112-2095 BCE) after he “liberated” Lagash and united most of southern Mesopotamia. Considered the last great Sumerian civilization, it is characterized by the standardization of currency, weight measurements, and architecture (especially that of temples and ziggurats), as well as provincial taxation. This period was rife was civil unrest in the fringe provinces, but also saw the rise of the merchant class. The fall of Ur III is attributed to multiple factors, but mainly civil unrest and revolt (from Elamites on the eastern front and Canaanites/Ammorites on the western front), until the city of Ur fell to the Elamites. Additionally, it is proposed that the Biblical patriarch Abraham was born in Ur sometime before it fell, but the year is not known. (The transition between the Early Assyrian Period (2500-2025 BCE) and the Old Assyrian Empire (2025-1378 BCE) occurs during the Ur III period).

 

2004-1595 BCE: Early Old and Old Babylonian Periods

This time is characterized by the rise of Ammorite leadership following the fall of Ur. This government was based in Babylon, and rivaled the size of the Akkadian empire. Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) ruled during this period, and Babylon experienced a golden age under his rule, and for that of his successors. He successfully defended Babylon from Elamite attacks, as well as promoted the use of legal precedence and “lex talionis” within the Babylonian justice system.

 

Late Bronze Age Mesopotamia: 1600-~1155 BCE (Pre-Collapse)

1600-1155 BCE: Kassite Babylonia 

After the fall of Hammurabi’s Babylon, the city was taken by the Kassites. They controlled most southern Mesopotamia (Sumeria) until the Late Bronze Age Collapse.

1600-1178 BCE: Hatti 

Hatti was the major power in southern Anatolia at the time of the Late Bronze Age. The people were known as “Hittites”, and they had regular border skirmishes with Mittani on the eastern borders, and with Egypt in the northern Levant. 

1600-1200 BCE: Mittani

Mittani is the empire that formed inside of the power vacuum created in northern Mesopotamia/Syria after the fall of Babylon to the Kassites.  Hittite forces had attempted to conquer this area, but failed, resulting in the establishment of Mittani. (The latter half of Mittani and the years following its deterioration coincide with the transition from the Old Assyrian Empire (2025-1378 BCE) to the Middle Assyrian Empire (1392-934 BCE).

1200-900 BCE: Late Bronze Age Collapse (Near East)

A number of factors (included but not limited to: plagues, famines, droughts,climate change, volcanic eruptions, decreased trade and diplomacy, economic collapse, decreased literacy, and attacks from mysterious and formidable “sea peoples”), caused the collapse of the Late Bronze Age through out all of Near East. Hatti fell completely as victim of the Greek Dark Ages (1100-800 BCE), Kassite Babylonia was conquered by Elam, and Mittani was dissolved until only the capital city, Assur, remained. 

 

1047-930 BCE: Kingdom of Israel

Established during the Late Bronze Age Collapse, Israel is the holy state of early monotheism, and the Jews enjoyed unprecedented autonomy within the holy lands before splitting into two separate states: Israel and Judah (which included Jerusalem), and eventually being conquered again and subject to deportation and resettlement, first by the Neo-Assyrians, and then by the Chaldeans. 

 

911-609 BCE: Neo-Assyrian Empire 

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is the final manifestation of Assyrian dominance in Mesopotamia, and what a show of power it was. They ruled the provinces with an iron fist, (no pun intended, considering this is the beginning of the Near Eastern Iron Age), and terrorized and disoriented their subjects to prevent rebellion. The Canaanites of Israel and Judah were especially negatively impacted by this (as is described in the torah/bible). On a lighter note, we also see the first written fiction, The Epic of Gilgamesh, appear in the royal library of King Ashurbanipal (668-630 BCE). Deportation and resettlement was popular tactic for preventing rebellion, and while it worked for quite a long time,and worked so well that it inspired all subsequent empires, the provinces eventually revolted. Rebels from Mede, Canaan, and Babylon sacked the capital city of Nineveh (612 BC), and finished off the Assyrian forces at Harran (609 BCE). 

 

626-539: Chaldean/Neo-Babylonian Empire

This empire is characterized by economic growth and a renaissance of classical Sumerian culture. The most popular leader from this period is King Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BCE), and Babylonians experienced a golden age under his rule. However, he was much less popular with Canaanites and Jewish peoples who he further displaced after conquering Judah and destroying the Temple of Solomon, (as is described in torah/bible). After they are conquered by the Persians, led by Cyprus the Great who reclaimed Babylon for the city patron God, Marduk, who had been denounced by the last Babylonian king. Babylon made several attempts to regain their independence, but failed. This is the last great Mesopotamian power. After this point, “Mesopotamia” no longer exists politically. The geographic region of Mesopotamia exists, but since the Chaldean Empire, it has been under the control of other forces. Mesopotamia does not exist after this point, for all intents and purposes, except for as a memory and legend. Babylon exists, but under outside rule, and will exist, I suppose, until the destruction detailed in The Book of Revelation comes to pass, if in fact it ever does. Mesopotamia does not even live to see the end of the age of Aries, or the start of the age of Pisces, except passively. 

 

SOURCES:

Ancient Mesopotamia: Life in The Cradle of Civilization, Amanda Podany, PhD. (Lecture series available on The Great Courses Plus). 

Encyclopedia Britannica Website- britannica.com

History Channel Website- history.com

“Entity X“ and The Limits of Empirical Observation: Deconstructed

There are more questions than answers, more theories than facts, and there is a world beyond observation. There is so much we don’t understand, despite all our scientific developments, though we endeavor to understand, and sometimes even pretend to. I’m no scientist, but it doesn’t take an Einstein to realize that there are so many unseen factors at play around us, although he had some very compelling ideas. With this post, I recommend checking out the sources first, they’re so much more fizicks-y, more concise than I could ever be in this subject. If you already know this stuff feel free to skip to my breakdown, I’m sure it’ll be a good laugh. Otherwise, these YouTube videos will definitely have the best and most understandable information, plus they’re all pretty short considering how much information they pack (big s/o to Crash Course… seriously what an incredible resource I don’t even care). What follows the video sources is my bumbling, liberal arts brained attempt at explaining the fizziks concepts behind the science presented within the first “Entity X” installment. Why? Because I am dedicated to holism despite how it makes my head hurt and transports me back to humiliating high school days of being violently confused whenever science started being math. Okay whatever, let’s get to these fixzichs sources. 

  1. The Electromagnetism and Waves
  1. Light Structure/ Human Eye and Ear Structure

Okay I hoped you watched these videos or at least read the descriptions because the rest of the post builds off the information in the sources, and is not nearly as comprehensive. If you want more information there are entire Crash Course series for Physics and Anatomy, all available on YouTube for free, plus more content than anyone could ever consume. Again, this an armchair endeavor, and there are career experts who have studied these topics their whole lives. I’ve provided some of these more classically academic sources at the end of this post.

Okay here goes nothing… I’m going to start with defining some key terms in my own words and in relation to the “Entity X” story,  which if you haven’t guessed by now, is a direct metaphor to humanity, so the presented biology is applicable. 

Electric Fields: The space near or around a charged particle which exerts force on the particles around it. Depending on the charge of the main particle, it will either repel or attract the particles and electric fields which are around it. An electric field is always present on any charged particle.

fig.1

 

Magnetic Fields: An occurrence in the space around a long-standing magnet (such as the earth’s liquid metal core) where magnetic currents extend beyond the magnet proper when there are two poles present.

fig.2

Electromagnetism: Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It is the study of the way electric fields and magnetic fields interact, as well as the connections between the two, and the various trends and consequences associated with said interactions. The Earth is one giant electromagnet, due to it producing a natural magnetic field originating from the liquid metal core, and a subsequent electric field which inevitably interact with each other to form one big electromagnetic field. This phenomena protects the living beings on it from most of the harmful radiation in space, (i.e. high frequency electromagnetic waves that cannot be empirically experienced due to environmental evolution and limited biology).

fig.3

Electromagnetic Spectrum: The electromagnetic spectrum encompasses all of the known categorizations of electromagnetic energy and radiation released from stars, including host stars such as the sun, categorized by wavelength and energetic potency. One on end of this spectrum are the low frequencies: radio waves, radar waves, microwaves, and infrared waves, in the middle is visible light, and on the other end are high frequency, high energy forms, referred to as “rays” rather than waves: UV rays, x-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays. 

Electromagnetic Waves: Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves which illustrate the interactions between a given electric field and a given magnetic field. All electromagnetic waves are inherently radiation waves due to the nature of their movements. Other than a small amount of visible light waves, all other electromagnetic waves are essentially invisible to the human eye. Low frequency waves (those lower than visible light) can be registered through other empirical senses such as hearing (when used in tandem with certain technologies), and kinesthetic touch (the necessary relationship between light, heat, and human kinesthetic experience will be further addressed in the near future). High frequency waves, (those higher than visible light), are invisible, inaudible, and are able to pass through the human body, meaning these types of waves cannot not be empirically experienced by humans, though their structure and effects can be theoretically interpreted and limitedly utilized through scientific means. Basically, low frequency electromagnetic “waves” can be empirically experienced in one way or another by human facilities, while high frequency electromagnetic “rays” are impossible to directly observe with human facilities.

fig.4

Visible Light: Light is electromagnetic radiation travelling in waves. Visible light is a very small section situated in the middle of the larger electromagnetic spectrum. Visible light can be experienced and interpreted by the anatomy of the human eye. In addition to the colors present on the visible light spectrum (R.O.Y.G.B.I.V.),  humans are also able to collect and interpret white light, the absence of light, grayscale, and to a limited extent, “black” or ultraviolet/UV light. While we can technically experience UV light, direct or prolonged exposure is not recommended as it can severely damage skin and vision, and therefore is not considered visible. 

Lenses: Lenses allow for the reshaping of light waves with obstacles. The lens structure present in the human eye allows for advanced collection of data from visible light sources, as well as advanced memory and interpretation of said light, thanks to the attached nervous system (almost 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eyes, and visual experiences are considered the dominant sensory experiences for humans). The wave nature of light inherently limits the use of lens technology, however scientific innovation has allowed for many technologies to be developed such as corrective lenses, polarized lenses, telescopes, and cameras.

fig.5

Sound: Sound consists of relatively low frequency longitudinal waves caused by vibrations which interact with the ear, rather complexly, to experience sound phenomena. Sound experience for humans is generally limited to pitches of 20 p/s – 20,000 p/s. Low frequency radio waves, when used in conjunction with technologies such as radios, mobile phones, and televisions can be registered as sound experience by the human ear and brain.

fig.6

fig.7

There’s something very important I did not take into account when I first described the evolutionary environment responsible for the creation of “Entity X”: Electromagnetic fields. The electromagnetic field surrounding the planet deflects most of the harmful radiation (or intense manifestations of light) that come off of the host star… (sounds familiar, doesn’t it?). The factors keeping this planet safe enough to facilitate complex lifeforms physically made certain types of light and energy very rare and unlikely to be naturally encountered in registerable amounts. I maintain that this factor plays a major role in the evolution of “Entity X”’s empirical facilities. If they evolved to effectively interact with the environment, it stands to reason that their evolution would lead to strong senses for efficiently and effectively interpreting regular energy occurrences (i.e. low frequency electromagnetic waves) . Since the majority of harmfully potent energy occurrences (i.e. high frequency electromagnetic “rays”) are, naturally, barred from the environment due to the planet’s magnetic field, therefore lacking in the environment, it also stands to reason that biological evolution would not bother taking these into account when developing empirical facilities.

Speaking of said facilities, they are marvels of their own, despite their shortcomings in viewing or registering all of the possible electromagnetic radiation levels. The complex sensory structures coupled with the awesome computing power of “Entity X’s” brain has allowed it to feed its curiosity beyond its biological ability to collect hard data. Through strict scientific and mathematical processes and heavy pedagogy, a sector of theoretical sciences has emerged. While this practice is responsible for the creation of many extraordinary developments and technologies, the science behind these developments is still all theoretical. For example, science has proved that manufacturing and application of “x-ray” waves is useful for seeing behind opaque surfaces. When you go through airport security or get those squares shoved in your mouth at the dentist, you are experiencing the effects of these rays, but not experiencing the rays directly or empirically. However, the potential consequences of employing x-ray waves or long term exposure to x-rays are not entirely understood, due to the theoretical understanding behind these technologies. This supports the point I made in the first “Entity X” installment: incomplete empirical experiences cannot lead to complete understanding or sciences. I am in no way trying to discredit science or downplay the effects it has on the world at large, I am simply urging that we employ a healthy amount of holism and academic skepticism when exploring topics that are strictly theoretical, or ones that rely on evidence that is not purely empirical. When it comes to the nature of the universe, there is definitely more that is unknown than that is known to be certain. We can make fancy approximations all day, but the questions seem to always outweigh the answers within the theoretical sciences.

Allow me to elaborate on some the most elusive phenomena encompassed in the theoretical sciences. Most of these phenomena play expansive and important roles in the establishment and sustaining of the universe and therefore life, however our understanding of them is incomplete at best. How about gravity? Another one of the fundamental forces of the universe, an undeniable force that holds the universe together. Can anyone say for sure how it works? There are some excellent guesses out there, including the theory of general relativity.

fig.8

This theory states that space and time are inherently connected, which Einstein represented as a fabric-esque or malleable sheet like plane, and that massive celestial bodies have the ability to warp this plane in a way that creates the phenomena of gravity. I find this theory is best explained in an image (fig. 8). Einstein’s math, I’m told, is sound, and so is his logic, but general relativity must remain a theory because human beings lack the biological ability to empirically prove its validity. Now what about dark matter? Experts believe it out numbers regular matter exponentially even though its presence and composition is empirically impossible to experience or prove. What sort of effects, and what caliber of effect, does this ample and unseen…stuff, goo, I don’t know…have on the universe? On life? On the relationship between the two? What mysteries could be solved by an empirical understanding of this phenomena? Is it the opposite of matter, a lack of matter, or something else entirely? See what I mean? More questions than answers. Although theories and guesses surrounding the nature of dark matter are everywhere, it’s well established that none of these are truly facts, and we continue to live under the consequences of dark matter without having any true understanding of it outside of the theoretical. Lastly, let’s discuss black holes.

fig.9

Black holes are celestial phenomena categorized by a lack of light, extreme gravitational force, plus they largely ignore any established rules, and evade the general human scientific framework and understanding of physics. Humans have no need to understand black holes, as encountering one would permanently cease our curiosity (and existence), so it makes perfect sense that our biology would not account for understanding them. However this has not stopped our insatiable curiosity from attempting to understand. Despite all the time and energy placed into researching this endeavor, our understanding of black holes remains rudimentary at best, and still completely theoretical. As with dark matter, the possible ramifications of being able to empirically understand black holes could unravel unimaginable quantum and cosmological secrets, but for now we must continue to live with the lack of answers, and an incomplete understanding of the powerful phenomenon that ultimately control us.

In summation, electromagnetic physics is complex and confusing, and largely theoretical when it comes down to it. Despite the inherent lack of absolute understanding in this field, mathematics and logic has led to the development of several theories that perhaps point us in the right direction, but ultimately cannot be fully factual. Due to the physics of the earth, mainly our electromagnetic field, human biology has not developed the ability to empirically confirm any aspect of theoretical physics, therefore we purely rely on theories to provide any semblance of understanding about the very forces and phenomenon that have allowed us to live long enough to question them. Like I said, this is not a diss to science- I just think maintaining a certain level of academic skepticism is necessary when considering the theoretical sciences, because there is obviously a disconnect between human biology and full electromagnetic experience. Additionally, I think that the answers we seek live inside those lapses of understanding, and possibly this is by design. But that’s just me.

Okay y’all thank you for indulging me… I know I’m no scientist so please don’t be too hard on me. I did my best, and I feel like my understanding of physics has improved immensely because of the research I did for this post. Like always, use the provided sources (and any other sources you want), perform your own research on these matters, and remember that one person’s opinion or theory cannot be absolutely true, especially when it comes to the theoretical sciences. Don’t let ego or arrogance keep you from an open mind. An open mind is a very powerful tool for understanding, especially when your empirical facilities fall short. The only thing I think anyone can know for certain is that the truth changes and is reliably fluid, and that mindset is the most useful I can imagine. Trying to force understanding when lacking proof is counterintuitive and counterproductive, and if an outside party is attempting to do such a thing to you, know that there is likely another agenda which would be hindered by practitioners who are able to think for themselves and perpetuate their own personal truth, hence the necessity of violent dogma. But, once again, I’m getting ahead of myself. So take a look at these final sources if you so please, and I’ll be back soon with the next “Entity X” installment.

SOURCES

1. Electromagnetic Spectrum:

https://www.britannica.com/science/electromagnetic-spectrum

https://youtu.be/7eutept5h0Q

https://youtu.be/jjy-eqWM38g

  1. Black Holes

https://youtu.be/qZWPBKULkdQ

https://youtu.be/rMk-_t5ls50

https://youtu.be/t-O-Qdh7VvQ

https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-black-hole-k4.html

  1. Sound Waves 

https://youtu.be/qV4lR9EWGlY

https://youtu.be/c38H6UKt3_I

https://youtu.be/IhzZAoSYDLE

https://physics.info/sound/

  1. Einstein and General Relativity

https://youtu.be/NgVSHXOz3jI

https://youtu.be/AInCqm5nCzw

https://youtu.be/ERgwVm9qWKA

https://www.britannica.com/science/special-relativity

Fetish Dialogues Deconstructed: Classical and Hellenistic Philosophy Crash Course

 

I understand that I took certain liberties in my previous post when describing Hellenistic philosophy and thought schools. This post serves as an ancillary source on that topic. (Seriously, holism is the most important aspect to all of my research, and I want to extend that to anyone who is using my website as a research medium).  A strong understanding of Hellenism is one of many necessary blocks for building a holistic tapestry depicting the truth of human spiritual evolution and degradation. For our purposes, since this is a macro historical inquiry, and we are trying to cover as much ground as possible, I’ll be going over the philosophical evolution of the larger Hellenistic age (approximately 624 BCE-30 BCE) rather than the Hellenistic period which begins with the death of Alexander the Great. ( 323 BCE- 30 BCE). ‘Hellenistic’, connotatively and for our purposes as theosophists, is a descriptor used to detail aspects of the latter period of Greek cultural prominence; that which coincides with subsequent Roman takeover, and significant historical convergence of Greek and Roman culture and philosophy. (The specifics of the life and death of Alexander the Great will have to be saved for a later essay.) There are many academic propositions for the exact dates which define Hellenism, but I have attempted to compile the data as simply as possible by focusing on the philosophical schools that developed during this time. This is a very generalized timeline and description of a subject that scholars have devoted their entire lives to; I cannot stress that enough. I have included an additional index of academic sources that helped me with this timeline and essay, and which I strongly encourage my readers to take a look at. Additionally, for simplicity’s sake I have approximated the dates which punctuate the timeline. The years provided are the generally agreed upon birth dates of the mentioned philosopher, as the influence and impact of the mentioned philosophies cannot be accurately dated. Once again, I insist that my readers strive for a holistic understanding of the information presented on this blog, and that includes properly notifying you of any of my shortcomings or approximations made in the name of simplicity or the bigger picture. And of course providing comprehensive academic sources to make up for it. After the timeline there will be explanations for the main schools of Hellenistic philosophy: Pythagoreanism, Sophism, Socratic and Platonic Philosophy, Cynicism, Stoicism, and the introduction of Judaism. 

 

A Time Line for Your Consideration 

The Hellenistic Age in Philosophical Thought 

 

624 BC: Thales of Miletus

Considered to be the “first Greek Philosopher”, and historically recognized as the first person in western civilization known to have entertained and engaged in scientific philosophy. He was one of the seven sages of Greece. 

 

570 BC: Pythagoras of Samos

 

510 BC: Anaxagoras 

Credited with bringing western philosophy into Athens from the fringes of Greece. He gave notable and novel scientific descriptions of natural processes and phenomena, most notably eclipses and the sun. 

 

490 BC: Protagoras of Abdera

Prominent Sophist, and practitioner of “radical relativism”. He is famous for his “3 Claims”: 1. Man is the measure of all things”, 2. “make the worse argument and appear the better”, and 3. “one cannot tell if the gods exist of not.” 

 

469 BC: Socrates 

Popularized and generalized western philosophy. Largely enigmatic, he is credited with popularizing epistemological thinking and pedagogical teaching styles in western academia. 

 

460 BC: Democritus 

Considered the father of modern science. 

 

427 BC: Plato 

 

384 BC: Aristotle 

 

365 BC: Pyrrho and Pyrrhonism 

 

341 BC: Epicurius and Epicureanism 

 

333 BC: Zeno of Citium and The Beginning of Stoicism 

 

323 BC: Euclid

 

316 BC: Arcesilaus and Academic Skepticism 

 

121 BC: Marcus Aurelius and Stoicsm 

 

106 BC: Cicero and Eclecticism

 

30 BC: Philo of Alexandria and Hellenistic Judaism 

(You’ll notice a trend after Aristotle- the philosophers begin naming philosophies after themselves, and the field is controlled by stoicism for an entire century before monotheism begins rearing its head. This is no coincidence, and everything leading up to that primes elite followers, and to a lesser extent, population centers, to embrace whatever comes next with blind faith in established pedagogy. Hopefully, my analysis will convince you, to any degree, to agree that the evolution of Hellenistic philosophy by itself lays out a decent roadmap to illustrate the retroactive shift from Aries age belief to Piscean age belief.) 

 

From a western standpoint, Aries’ age belief consists of the early Babylonian and Egyptian mythologies all the way up until the end of the Western Roman Empire. It is generally the same stories echoed onto one another, with varying geographical, political, cultural nuances. These mythologies begin with primordial nothing, and then order is brought by giants and new immortal energies. From there, the second generation purifies itself from the first, and effectively establishes dominion over humans. These parties (with the exception of the giants), are inherently inaccessible to mortal kind, but still necessary for spirituality, and spiritual understanding in the age of Aries. They were symbolically generated into complex pantheons consisting of characters who embodied the best and worst aspects of both nature and humanity. This was the norm in the west, as well as many stories and oral traditions that further developed these characters and their interactions with mortal kind. The Greek and Roman stylizations of this pantheon are common, popular knowledge (Zues, Prometheus, the whole gang). Conversely, Pisces age belief is hallmarked by the villainizing of pantheon style worship, prominence of oppressive monotheism, and the introduction of the contemporary invisible devil archetype into the collective consciousness. The Hellenistic age and the philosophies developed therein effectively serve as a step ladder to Piscean monotheism. One day, men started questioning what they couldn’t see, and the trend only got more popular over time, until they eventually arrived at stylized, “logical” martyrdom and blind faith as a solution to questions that they found did not have absolute answers. What could have been a very interesting and informative foray into the nature of experience and empiricism proved to be too useful for Luciferian forces and was targeted or manipulated over the centuries as Greece and Egypt were overtaken by Rome. It is also worth noting that in addition to what is largely considered public knowledge about Hellenistic age philosophy, there is also an enigmatic, occult/esoteric aspect to most of the philosophies, about which little is known (sources available). These phenomena and their relationship to spiritual degradation will be discussed at length at a later date.

 

It all began with Thales of Miletus, born in 624 BC. A Greek man who one day decided to apply what we would call “scientific processes” to his experiences… and he was shocked by the results! He is heralded as the first Greek philosopher, and he is one of the seven sages of Greece. He began the domino effect by no means other than simple intellectual curiosity. The decision to sanction the deconstruction of the physical world and Aries age spiritual status quo was made when this man’s ideas began gaining prominence. One wrong choice made in curiosity also starts off the events in Genesis which leads to the rest of it. The next big philosophy is Pythagoreanism. Metempsychosis or “transmigration” and tools for navigating this such as early Hermetics (primarily numerology, mathematics/geometry, and music) and soul science are a large part of this early, enigmatic, and  ascetic school of thought. Although incredibly covert, his teachings heavily influenced most of his contemporaries and many of the other famous Hellenistic philosophers that succeeded him. Pythagoras waltzed through the door opened by Thales and became an eccentric character in the world of western academia which only increased the intrigue in what was slowly becoming a sensation. A contemporary of Pythagoras, Anaxagoras, is credited with bringing the new philosophies from the fringes of Greece into Athens. Other contemporaries of Pythagoras would create comparatively minor thought practices as Sophism and Cynicism, both of which left an imprint on the cultural and political trends that followed their advent. Sophism is characterized by a certain type of educational rhetoric aimed at teaching “arete” (ethical excellence) to wealthy statesmen and nobles. These teachers played a significant, behind the scenes role in maintaining Greek and Athenian (and eventually Roman) political structure during the Hellenistic age. One sophist I’d like to mention by name is Protagoras of Abdera. His entry on the timeline; the 3 Sophist claims promote absolute humanity, absolute dominion, and absolute intellect of humans. While logically sound and particularly powerful for ego inflation, “radical relativism” successfully removed masses of people from their deeper spiritual and intuitive roots by giving them ethical grounds for total intellectual dominion, effectively instigating spiritual retrograde. That leads us to cynicism, which is characterized by living simply, supremely disciplined, and in accordance with nature. Diogenes took cynicism to logical extremes, and the practice ultimately became synonymous with rejecting all material pleasure in pursuit of greater spiritual happiness. He opted to live homeless on the street rather than ruin his relationship to nature with frivolous materialism… I think it borders on the absurd, (and definitely parallels biblical behavioral guidelines). 

 

Next we have the big three boys, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Yes, they essentially embody all of Hellenistic philosophy, but the truth is they were largely responsible for the pedantry that made philosophical learning inaccessible to the public at large. Socrates operated on the same level as his predecessors, but scaled up. While he was enigmatic, he was well known and sought out by many scholars. However, they were mostly wealthy individuals who had the time and resources to commit to memorizing the pedantics necessary to practice with Socrates. Plato knew all about it, and he attempted to make learning more accessible by writing books and telling stories, and Aristotle essentially sold out. (This is just my humorous opinion and there is plenty to learn from and about these individuals and the professionals who research them!). I chose to view them from this perspective because it supports my bias that Hellenism led directly to the rise of monotheism, and the evidence of this is present. I see a parallel between the gap of knowledge growing through the centuries where Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle held prominence in western academic circles during the Hellenistic age and the way the knowledge gap grew in the Piscean, European dark ages, leading to increased reliance on symbols and the word of more privileged and educated individuals. These three prominent Hellenistic philosophers drowned the practice in pedantry and pedagogy to the point where any lay men couldn’t have had the opportunity to learn effectively from masters. Spiritual guidance and formal ethical education was effectively reserved for the wealthy and powerful during this period of philosophical history. 

 

Pyrrhonism and skepticism, Epicureanism, stoicism, academic skepticism, and eclecticism are the final purely philosophical practices before the popular advent of biblical monotheism. Pyrrhonism is the predecessor of skepticism, concerned with achieving “ataraxia”, or general peace of mind through “epoche” which essentially means withholding judgement about matters related to belief. Essentially, their strategy was resigning to willful ignorance and blind faith for the sake of emotional simplicity. Pyrrhonism and skepticism promote emotional martyrdom and spiritual complacency; letting go of any attachments to ego, ego manifestations, or situational control or power in order to sustain a life with little to no inner conflict. Epicureanism was considered skepticisms rival practice, and focused on the inevitable chaotic nature of the universe and is hallmarked by the disbelief and absence of divine influence in mortal affairs. Epicureans believed that absence of pain is the greatest pleasure, and they advocated for simple and pleasurable living. In my opinion, it is reminiscent of contemporary atheism, and there is some obvious seeds of polarity being planted here. Stoicism borrows heavily from the practice of cynicism, advocating living in accordance with nature by freeing oneself from self destructive emotions such as anger, envy, or sadness through self discipline. This practice was incredibly popular for a very long time, beginning with Zeno of Citium near 333 BC and reaching its peak with Roman scholar Cicero near 106 BC. Academic skepticism was similar to traditional skepticism, but challenged the practice epistemologically, attacking the logical and empirical lapses in the original skeptical beliefs. Finally, there was eclecticism, which was basically a buffet of all the already existing philosophies. Once the evolution of Hellenistic philosophy plateaued, it didn’t take long for Judeo-Christian characters to introduce themselves into the occasion. Scholars such as Philo of Alexandria, Clement of Alexandria, and Plotinus quickly boosted monotheism to the forefront of wealthy and powerful circles through mixing biblical ideas into well established Hellenistic ones. 

 

That’s the essay everyone thanks for your time… I hope you learned something new because I certainly had to do a lot of boring philosophy research, but I’m glad to have it all consolidated now. To confirm, I believe, fully, that the hellenistic age was the beginning of the end of the great Greek civilization, and that the well meaning attempt at understanding experience spiraled into an intellectual trap that ultimately planted the seeds that would spur collective western spirituality into a retrograde. The logical and scientific approaches to religion practiced throughout the Hellenistic age deprived populations of the innately intuitive and personal aspects offered by the old mystic pantheon religions, and primed the leaders of the time and place to seek uniform ethics and moral simplicity above all else and at any cost. This inevitably led to the rise of and reliance on biblical monotheism and… well  we all know how that’s turning out. 

 

sources
hellenistic period timeline

https://www.uh.edu/~cfreelan/courses/Stoics/Timeline.html

Thales of Miletus   

Pythagoras 

Anaxagoras 

Protagoras 

Socrates 

Democritis 

Plato

Aristotle 

Pyrrho + Pyrrhonism 

Epicurus + Epicureanism 

Zeno of Citium 

Cicero 

Philo of Alexandria 

Clement of Alexandria

Plotinus